English 233: Introduction to Western
Humanities - Baroque & Enlightenment
Lyman Baker, Instructor
Reading List #2:
and the Catholic Counter-Reformation
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The material in this reading list, together with the
class discussions pertaining to it, should put you on a
sound footing to approach all but one of the questions
you will encounter on the in-class portion of Exam
#1. You will find a link to the prep sheet for this
portion of the exam on the general page on Examinations. It would be a
good idea to acquire a copy of that prep sheet to have on
hand as you work your way through these readings.
- This first reading could just as well be the last item on
Reading List #1. In "More on justification"
we expand what we have so far said on salvation theory by
introducing a perspective that was early on rejected as
heresy by what succeeded in establishing itself as
orthodox Christianity within the Roman Empire, but which
will re-emerge, though marginally, within the Protestant
Reformation, and become more and more prominent during
the Enlightenment of the 18th
Century. This is the position known as
Pelagianism. We look at it from the standpoint
of a Post-Reformation heir (the Catholic Encyclopedia
of 1913) of the schola antigua (Thomism)
and from that of the most uncomromising Reformation heir
(Calvinism) of the schola augustiniana. Our
purpose at this moment is to use it as a foil to
throw into even sharper relief the features of the
Augustinian and Thomistic pictures of God's plan for
accomplishing his plan for history.
- Next it is important to review the material in WH
on the medieval sacramental system, monasticism, and
scholasticism (3:215-220; 2:217-222),
the Protestant Reformation (3:329-334;
and the Counter-Reformation (3:334-335;
- We then undertake to read some of the key writings of Martin Luther.
Among the items to which links are given from the page
just cited, only the following are required reading:
the Ninety-Five Theses (1517)
the Study Guide to the
Luther's description (1543) of
his moment of saving theological
insight (c.1519) -- the so-called
Luther's definition of
"faith" in his
Commentary on St. Paul's Letter
to the Romans (1522)
his declaration before the Diet
of Worms (1521)
"The Freedom of a Christian
the Study Guide to Luther's
- We read some important excerpts from the writings of John Calvin and some
of his followers. The required readings
are the following:
- (4.1) review of
relevant material in WH
- (4.2) an excerpt
from The Institutes of the
Christian Religion on the
role of God in history (salvation
- (4.3) a dispute
between Calvin and Bishop
Sadoleto over the proper end of
- (4.4) Study Guide to
the previous item.
We look into some further divisions within the Protestant
camp: antinomians and anabaptists (or, as they called
- (5.1) excerpt from Thomas
Münzer's "Sermon to the Princes"
- (5.2) excerpt from Münzer's
call to the peasants to establish Christian
- (5.3) excerpt from Luther's
exhortation to the German Princes to crush the
peasants in revolt.
- (5.4) excerpt from Münzer's
counter-attack upon Luther.
- (5.5) Robert
Browning, "Johannes Agricola in
Meditation" (18 ) -- the mentality
of a 16th-century antinomian, as imagined by a
19th-century English poet.
We try in two ways to bring into sharper focus our sense of
the crisis in authority wrought by this religious
conflict. The first is to look closely at the
implications of the concept of idolatry
within the context of the schism.
The second is to consider effects of the multifarious civil conflicts and wars unleashed
by the controversy.
We then turn to some results
of the Council of Trent concerning beliefs required of
Catholics in the wake of the Protestant Reformation.
Finally we take up the phenomenon of "Roman baroque
art" (alias "the ecclesiastical baroque") as an
expression of an increasingly confident
Counter-Reformation. By way of contrast, we will
briefly look at a very few examples of High Renaissance and
Mannerist painting. Then we will concentrate on a carefully
selected set of works by Michaelangelo Caravaggio and Gianlorenzo
- (9.1) WH (3:308-310,
314-315): Leonardo DaVinci's The Last
Supper (1495-98) and Raphael's The School of
- (9.2) WH (3:328, 344-345,
El Greco's The Burial of Count Orgaz (1586) and
Tintoretto's The Last Supper (1592-94).
- (9.3) WH (3:358-366;
The florid baroque: Bernini, Caravaggio, Artimesia
Gentileschi, Andrea Pozzo, Rubens, Velazquez.
- (9.4) Be sure to print out a copy of "The
Logical Structure of an Art-Historical Period Style
- (9.5) For links to lots of downloadable graphics,
especially on Caravaggio and Bernini, go to our page on Roman baroque art.
- Return to Master
List of Reading Lists.
Go back to Reading List #1.
Go forward to Reading List#3.
Go to the Home
Page of the course.
Suggestions are welcome. Please send your comments
copyright © 1998 by Lyman
Permission is granted for non-commercial
educational use; all other rights reserved.
This page last
updated 15 October 1997.