Ludek M. Zurek
K-State UniversityLudek M. Zurek

Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology
Department of Entomology
Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506
Tel: 785-532-4731 Fax: 785-532-6232

BS. (1987) Mendel University, Brno, CZ
Ph.D. (1998) University of Alberta, Edmonton, CA
Postd. Res. Assoc. (1999-2002) North Carolina State University, Raleigh

Specialization and Areas of Research Interest:

Research program in our laboratory is oriented in three main directions:
a) ecology of zoonotic and food-borne pathogens in agricultural and urban environments with the special emphasis on antibiotic resistant strains
b) gastro-intestinal microbial ecology of arthropods with focus on the gut-microbial homeostasis, role of gut bacterial communities in development of innate epithelial immunity and vector capacity for human and animal parasites and pathogens
c) development of novel microbially-based strategies for integrated pest management

    We are working primarily with enterococci and Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC). The main interests include the origins, reservoirs, and horizontal transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria. We ask questions on how and why some innocuous environmental bacterial strains acquire specific traits that make them clinically important.
    The gastro-intestinal tract of insects/arthropods is an ideal habitat for large and diverse microbial communities. We are interested in ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and biting midges (Culicoides sonorensis) - microbial interactions from perspectives of development, adult fitness, innate immunity, and vector competence for pathogens transmission. We also collaborate with Dr. David Sacks (NIAID, NIH) on the assessment of the role of the gut bacterial community of sand flies in vector competence for Leishmania parasites.
    Development and survival of some insects, such as larvae of muscoid flies, strictly depends on an active microbial community in the natural habitat (e.g. animal and human feces and other decomposing organic substrates). We are interested in a better understanding of this insect - bacterial association with the overall goal to develop novel insect pest management strategies.

Current Research Team:
Jessica Thomson (Ph.D. student), BS. Kansas State University, (2014 - present)
Paulina Maldonado Ruiz (Ph.D. student), BS. MS. University of Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Mexico (2016 - present)
Saraswoti Neupane (Postdoctoral Research Associate), Swedish University of Agriculture (2016 - present)

M. Jahangir Alam, Postdoctoral Researcher Associate: (2003 - 2005)
(currently, Researcher, University of Houston, Houston TX)
Alvaro Romero, MS. student: (2003 - 2005)
(currently, Assistant Professor, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)
Seemanti Chakrabarti, Ph.D. student: (2002 - 2005)
(currently, Lecturer, University of Florida, REC, Ft. Lauderdale)
Justin Talley, Ph.D. student: (2003 -2006)
(currently, Associate Professor, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater)
Furaha W. Mramba, Ph.D. Student, (2003 - 2006)
(currently, Researcher in the Tanzanian Government)
Mastura (Luna) Akhtar, Ph.D. Student, (2004 - 2008)
(currently, Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul)
Aqeel Ahmad, Postdoctoral Res. Associate, (2004 - 2008)
(currently, Research Entomologist, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO)
Lilia Macovei,
Postdoctoral Res. Associate (2005 -2008)
(currently, Postdoctoral Res. Associate, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, MA)
Lakshmikantha H. Channaih, Ph.D. student (2006-2009)
(currently, Postdoctoral Res. Associate, K-State)
Carl W. Doud, Ph.D. student (2008 - 2011)
(currently, Director of Midland County Mosquito Control, Sanford, MI)
Deepti Pillai, Ph.D. student (2008 - 2011)
(currently, Research Assistant, Kansas State University, Dept. of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology)
Thais Albuquerque Ph.D. student (2007 - 2012)
(currently, Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Sao Paulo)
Kamila Peterkova-Koci Postdoctoral Res. Associate (2010 - 2012)
(currently on maternity leave)
Rukmini Puri (MS. student), BS., MS. Tribhuwan University, Nepal (2013 - 2015)
(currently on maternity leave)
Dinesh Erram (Ph.D. student), MS. Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO (2012 - 2016)
(currently, Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Florida)
Anuradha Ghosh (Postd. Res. Assoc.), Ph.D. Inst. of Microb. Technol., Chandigarh, India (2008 - 2015)
(currently, Assistant Professor, Pittsburg State University)


A.   Microbial Ecology

Louradour I., C.C. Monteiro, E. Inbar, K. Ghosh, R. Merkhofer, P. Lawyer, A. Paun, M. Smelkinson, N. Secundino, M. Lewis, D. Erram, L. Zurek and D. Sacks (2017). The midgut microbiota plays an essential role in sand fly vector competence for Leishmania major. Cellular Microbiology e12755. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12755.

Puri-Giri-R., A. Ghosh, J.L. Thomson and L. Zurek* (2017). House flies in the confined cattle environment carry non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Journal of Medical Entomology. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjw240.

Jamborova I., M. Dolejska, L. Zurek, A.K. Townsend, A.B. Clark, J.C. Ellis, I. Papousek, A. Cizek and I. Literak (2017). Plasmid-mediated resistance to cephalosporins and quinolones in Escherichia coli from American crows in the USA. Environmental Microbiology 19:2025-2036

Thomson J.L., K.M. Yeater, L. Zurek and D. Nayduch (2017). Abundance and accumulation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium procured by male and female house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) exposed to cattle manure. Annals of Entomological Society of America 110:37-44.

Hubert J., J. Kopecky, M. Sagova-Mareckova, M. Nesvorna, L. Zurek, and T. Erban (2016). Assessment of bacterial communities in thirteen species of laboratory-cultured domestic mites (Acari: Acaridida). Journal of Economic Entomology 109: 1887-1896.

Puri-Giri-R., A. Ghosh, and L. Zurek* (2016). Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) from confined beef cattle do not carry Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in the digestive tract. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 13: 65-67.(DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2015.2056.)

Wada-Katsumata A., L. Zurek , G. Nalyanya, W.L. Roelofs, A. Zhang, and C. Schal. (2015). Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 15678-15683.

Nayduch D., D. Erram, M.B. Lee, L. Zurek and C.A. Saski (2015). Impact of the blood meal on humoral immunity and microbiota in the gut of female Culicoides sonorensis. Veterinaria Italiana 51: 385-392.

Ghosh A. and L. Zurek* (2015). Antibiotic Resistance in Enterococci: A Food Safety Perspective. In "Antibiotic Resistance and Food Safety", Eds. C.Y. Chen, X. Yan, and C.R. Jackson. Academic Press and Elsevier. Chapter 9, pp.155-173.

Splichalova P., P. Svec, A. Ghosh, L. Zurek, V. Oravcova, T. Radimersky, M. Bohus, and I. Literak (2015). Prevalence, diversity, and characterization of enterococci from three coraciiform birds. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 107:1281-1289.

Ghosh A. and L. Zurek* (2015). Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliforms contamination by house flies. Journal of Food Protection 78: 567-572.

Hubert J., T. Erban, M. Kamler, J. Kopecky, M. Nesvorna, S. Hejdankova, D. Titera, J. Tyl, and L. Zurek (2015). Bacteria detected in the honeybee parasitic mite Varroa destructor collected from beehive winter debris. Journal of Applied Microbiology 119: 640-654.

Albuquerque T. and L. Zurek* (2014).Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness. Frontiers of Microbiology 5:590.

Zurek L.* and A. Ghosh (2014). Insects represent a link between food animal farms and the urban environment for antibiotic resistance traits. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80: 3562-3567.

Oravcova V., L. Zurek, A. Townsend, A.B. Clark, J.C. Ellis, A. Cizek, and I. Literak (2014). American crows as carriers of vancomycin resistant enterococci with vanA gene. Environmental Microbiology 16: 939-949.

Doud C.W., H.M. Scott, and L. Zurek* (2014). Role of house flies in the ecology of Enterococcus faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities. Microbial Ecology 67:380-391.

Ghosh A., M. Akhtar, C. Holderman, and L. Zurek* (2014). Significance and survival of enterococci during the house fly development. Journal of Medical Entomology 51: 63-67.

Halova D., I. Papousek, I. Jamborova, M. Masarikova, A. Cizek, N. Janecko, V. Oravcova, L. Zurek, A.B. Clark, A. Townsend, J.C. Ellis, and I. Literak (2014). Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae from American crows: High prevalence of bacteria with variable qnrB genes. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 58:1257-1258.

Frolkova P., P. Svec, I. Sedlacek, I. Maslanova, J. Cernohlavkova, A. Ghosh, L. Zurek, T. Radimersky, and I. Literak (2013). Enterococcus alcedinis sp. nov., isolated from common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63:3069-3074.

Ghosh A., L. Borst, S.H. Stauffer, M. Suyemoto, P. Moisan, L. Zurek, and J. Gookin (2013). Mortality in kittens is associated with a shift in ileum mucosa-associated enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecalis and adherent Escherichia coli. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 51:3567-3578.

Oravcova V., A. Ghosh, L. Zurek, J. Bardon, S. Guenther, A. Cizek, and I. Literak (2013). Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in rooks (Corvus frugilegus) wintering throughout Europe. Environmental Microbiology 15:548-556.

Peterkova-Koci K., M. Robles-Murguia, M. Ramalho-Ortigao, L. Zurek* (2012). Significance of bacteria in oviposition and larval development of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Parasites & Vectors 5:145.

Frolkova P., A. Ghosh, P. Svec, L. Zurek, I. Literak (2012). Use of the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase gene sodA for rapid identification of recently described enterococcal species. Folia Microbiologica 57: 439-442.

Hubert J., Jopecky J., Perotti A., Braig H.R., Sagova-Mareckova M., Macovei L., and L. Zurek (2012). Detection and identification of species-specific bacteria associated with synanthropic mites. Microbial Ecology 63: 919-928.

Unc A., L. Zurek, G. Peterson, S. Narayanan, S.V. Springthorpe, and S.A. Sattar (2012). Microarray assessment of virulence, antibiotic, and heavy metal resistance in an agricultural watershed creek. Journal of Environmental Quality 41: 1-10.

Doud C.W., D.B. Taylor and L. Zurek* (2012). Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 49:286-292.

Doud C.W. and L. Zurek* (2012). Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF:pMV158 survives and proliferates in the house fly digestive tract. Journal of Medical Entomology 49:150-155.

Ghosh A., K. KuKanich, C.B. Brown and L. Zurek* (2012). Resident cats in small animal veterinary hospitals carry multi-drug resistant enterococci and are likley involved in cross-contamination of the hospital environment. Frontiers in Microbiology 3(62):1-14.

KuKanich K.S., A. Ghosh, J.V. Skarbek, K. Lothamer, and L. Zurek (2012). Surveillance of bacterial contamination in small animal veterinary hospitals with focus on drug resistance and virulence traits of enterococci. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 240:437-445.

Ghosh A., S.E. Dowd, and L. Zurek* (2011). Dogs leaving the ICU carry a very large multi-drug resistant enterococcal population with capacity for biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22451.

Khajuria C., L.L. Buschman, M.S. Chen, L. Zurek, and K.Y. Zhu (2011). Characterization of six antibacterial response genes from the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) larval gut and their expression in response to bacterial challenge. Journal of Insect Physiology 57:345-355.

Ahmad A., A. Ghosh, C. Schal, and L. Zurek* (2011). Insects in confined swine operations carry a large antibiotic resistant and potentially virulent enterococcal community. BMC Microbiology 11:23.

Amachawadi R.A., Shelton N.W., Jacob M.E., Shi X., Narayanan S.K., Zurek L., Dritz S.S., Nelssen J.L., Tokach M.D. and Nagaraja T.G. (2010). Occurence of tcrB, a transferable copper resistance gene, in fecal enterococci of swine. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 7:1089-1097.

Channaiah LH, B. Subramanyam, and L. Zurek (2010). Stored product insects are carriers of antibiotic resistant and potentially virulent enterococci. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 74:464-471.

Channaiah, L.H., B. Subramanyam, and L. Zurek (2010).  Survival of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF:pCF10 in poultry and cattle feed: Vector competence of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Journal of Food Protection 73:568-573.

Akhtar, M., H. Hirt, and L. Zurek*(2009). Horizontal transfer of the tetracycline resistance gene tetM mediated by pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis in the house fly alimentary canal. Microbial Ecology 59 : 509-518.

Macovei, L., A. Ghosh, V. Thomas, L. Hancock, S. Mahmood, and L. Zurek* (2009).  Enterococcus faecalis with the gelatinase phenotype regulated by the fsr-operon and with biofilm forming capacity are common in the agricultural environment. Environmental Microbiology 11:1540-1547.

Nagulalally, S.R., A. Ahmad, A. Henry, G.L. Marchin, L. Zurek, and A. Bhandari (2009). Occurrence of ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin resistant bacteria in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water Environment Research 80: 82-90.

Anderson, J.F., T.D. Parrish, M. Akhtar, L. Zurek, and H. Hirt (2008). Antibiotic resistance of enterococci in American bison (Bison bison) from a nature preserve compared to that of enterococci in pastured cattle. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74: 1726-1730.

Larson, Z., B. Subramanyam, L. Zurek, and T. Herrman (2008). Diversity and antibiotic resistance of enterococci associated with stored-product insects collected form feed mills. Journal of Stored Product Research 44: 198-203.

Macovei, L., B. Miles, and L. Zurek* (2008). The potential of house flies to contaminate ready-to-eat food with antibiotic resistant enterococci. Journal of Food Protection 71: 432-439.

Christen, J.M., J.F. Campbell, L. Zurek, D.I. Shapiroo-Ilan, E.E. Lewis, and S.B. Ramaswamy (2008). Role of symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria in carbon dioxide production from hosts infected with Steinernema riobrave. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 99: 35-42.

Macovei, L. and L. Zurek* (2007). Influx of enterococci and associated antibiotic resistance and virulence genes from ready-to-eat food to the human digestive tract. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 6740-6747.

Mramba, F., A. Broce, and L. Zurek* (2007). Vector competence of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) for Enterobacter sakazakii. Journal of Vector Ecology 32: 134-139.

Ahmad, A., T.G. Nagaraja, and L. Zurek* (2007). Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to cattle by house flies. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 80: 74-81.

Ahmad A. and L. Zurek* (2006). Evaluation of the anti-terminator Q933 gene as a marker for Escherichia coli O157:H7 with high Shiga toxin production. Current Microbiology 53: 324-328.

Alam M.J. and L. Zurek* (2006). Seasonal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef cattle feces. Journal of Food Protection 69: 3018-3020.

Sanderson MW, J.M. Sargeant, X. Shi, T.G. Nagaraja, L. Zurek, M.J. Alam (2006). Longitudinal emergence and distribution of Escherichia coli O157 genotypes in a beef feedlot.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 7614-7619.

Macovei L. and L. Zurek* (2006). Ecology of antibiotic resistance genes: Characterization of enterococci from houseflies collected in food settings. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 4028-4035.

Ahmad A., A. Broce, and L. Zurek * (2006) Significance of bacteria in development of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria. Journal of Medical Entomology 43: 1129-1133.

Romero A.,  A. Broce, L. Zurek* (2006). Role of bacteria in oviposition behavior and larval development of stable flies. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 20: 115-121.

Sirigireddy K.R., Kennedy G.A., Broce A., L. Zurek, R R Ganta. (2006). High prevalence of West Nile virus in Kansas: An increased risk in acquiring infection from a mosquito bite. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 6: 351-360.

Mramba F., A. Broce, and L. Zurek* (2006). Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii from stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.). Journal of Food Protection  69: 671-673

Alam M.J. and L. Zurek* (2004). Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with house flies (Musca domestica) on a cattle farm. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 7578-7580.

Zurek L.* and C. Schal (2004). Evaluation of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) as a vector for verotoxigenic Escherichia coli F18 in confined swine production. Veterinary Microbiology 101: 263-267.

Chakrabarti S., S. Kambhampati, T. Grace, and L. Zurek* (2004). Characterization of microsatellite loci of the house fly, Musca domestica. Molecular Ecology Notes 4: 728-730.

Gemeno C., L. Zurek, and C. Schal. (2004). Control of the Herpomyces (Ascomycetes:Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattelidae), with benomyl. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 85: 132-135.

Trexler J.D., C.S. Apperson, L. Zurek, C. Gemeno, C. Schal, M. Kaufman, E.D. Walker, D.W. Watson, and L. Wallace (2003) Role of bacteria in mediating the oviposition responses of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 40: 841-848.

Fan Y., L. Zurek , M.J. Dykstra, and C. Schal (2003). Hydrocarbon synthesis by enzymatically dissociated oenocytes of the abdominal integument of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Naturwissenschaften 90: 121-126.

Zurek L.*, D.W. Watson, and C. Schal (2002). Synergism between the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and boric acid against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Biological Control  23: 296-302.

Zurek L.*, S.B. Krasnoff, D.W. Watson, and C. Schal (2002). Effect of the entomopathogenic fungus, Entomophthora muscae (Zygomycota: Entomophthoraceae) on sex pheromone and other cuticular hydrocarbons of the house fly, Musca domestica . Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 80: 171-176.

Barbieri E., B.J. Paster, D. Hughes, L. Zurek, D.P. Moser, A. Teske, and M.L. Sogin (2001). Phylogenetic characterization of epibiotic bacteria in the accessory nidamental gland and the egg capsules of the squid Loligo paelei (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae). Environmental Microbiology 3:151-167.

Zurek L.*, Denning S.S., Schal C., and D.W. Watson (2001). Vector competence of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Journal of Medical Entomology 38: 333-336.

Dugas J.E., Zurek L., Paster B.P., Keddie B.A., and E.R. Leadbetter (2001). Isolation and characterization of the Chryseobacterium strain from the gut of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Archives of Microbiology 175: 259-262.

Zurek L.* Schal C., and D.W. Watson (2000). Diversity and contribution of the gastrointestinal bacterial community to the development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae. Journal of Medical Entomology 37: 924-928.

Zurek L.* and B.A. Keddie (1998). Significance of methanogenic symbionts for development of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Journal of Insect Physiology 44: 645-651.

Zurek L.* and B.A. Keddie (1996). Contribution of the colon and colonic anaerobic bacterial flora to the metabolism and development of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L. Journal of Insect Physiology 42: 743-748. 


B.    Pest Management

Pfannenstiel R.S., B.A. Mullens, M.G. Ruder, L. Zurek, L.W. Cohnstaedt, and D.Nayduch (2015). Management of North American Culicoides biting midges: Current knowledge and research needs. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 15: 374-384.

Tangtrakulwanich K, T.A. Albuquerque, G.J. Brewer, F.P. Baxendale, L. Zurek, D.N. Miller, D.B. Taylor, K.A. friesen, and J.J. Zhu (2015). Behavioural responses of stable flies to cattle manure slurry associated adourants. Medical and Veterinary Entomology doi: 10.1111/mve.12103.

Zhu J.J., B.J. Wienhold, J. Wehrle, D. Davis, H. Chen, D. Taylor, K. Friesen and L. Zurek (2014). Efficacy and longevity of newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition and larval growth. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 28: 222-227.

Scott J.G., C.A. Leichter, F.D.Rinkevihc, S.A Harris, C. Su, L.C. Aberegg, R. Moon, C.J. Geden, A.C. Gerry, D.B. Taylor, R.L. Byford, W. Watson, G. Johnson, and L. Zurek (2013). Insecticide resistance in house flies from the United States: Resistance levels and frequency of pyrethroid resistance alleles. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 107:377-384.

Talley, J., A. Broce, and L. Zurek* (2009). Characterization of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larval developmental habitat at round hay bale feeding sites. Journal of Medical Entomology 46:1310-1319.

Ahmad, A. and L. Zurek* (2009). Evaluation of metaflumizone granular bait for management of house flies. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 23:167-169.

Ahmad A., B. Subramanyam, and L. Zurek  (2007). Responses of mosquitoes and German cockroaches to ultrasound emitted from a random ultrasonic generating device. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata  123: 25-33.

Broce A.B., L. Zurek, J.A. Kalisch, R. Brown, D.L. Leith, D. Gordon, J. Goedeke, C. Welbourn, J. Moser, R. Ochoa, E. Baumgartner, F. Yip, and J. Weber (2006). Pyemotes herfsi (Acari: Pyemotidae), a mite new to North America causing bite outbreaks. Journal of Medical Entomology 43: 610-613.

Gore J.C., L. Zurek, R.G. Santangelo, S.M. Stringham, D.W. Watson, and C. Schal (2004).  Water solutions of boric acid and sugar for management of German cockroach populations in livestock production systems. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 715-720.

Zurek L.*,J.C. Gore, M.S. Stringham, D.W. Watson, M.G. Waldvogel, and C. Schal (2003). Boric acid dust as a component of an integrated cockroach management program in confined swine production. Journal of Economic Entomology :1362-1366.

Watson D.W., S.S. Denning, L. Zurek, S.M. Stringham, and J Elliot. (2003). Effects of lime hydrate on the development of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus. International Journal of Poultry Science 2: 91-96.

Zurek L.* and B.A. Keddie (2000). Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Viullemin - a promising biological control agent of the satin moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 10: 641-644.


C.    Book Chapters

Zurek, L*. and J.R. Gorham (2008).  Insects as vectors of foodborne pathogens. In Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security.  (Edited by  J.G. Voeller), John Wiley & Sons Inc. (book chapter; 16 pages)

Gorham, J.R. and L. Zurek (2006).  Arthropods, filth and other foreign objects in food. pp: 74/1 - 74/28. In Handbook of Food Sciences Technology and Engineering. (Edited by Y.H. Hui), CRC Press, New York, NY.


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Last revised: Feb., 2017